All living things must be able to meet their food, water and shelter needs, to survive. Various body structures and behaviors contribute to fulfilling these needs. Such unique parts and behaviors are called adaptations. There are three major types of adaptations. such as Structural adaptations, Physiological adaptations and Behavioral adaptations. Adaptations occur due to evolution. Evolution is a long-term change in a species. Adaptations are generally caused by a gene mutation or accidentally changing. Some mutations can make it easier for an animal or plant to survive without mutation than others. Wallace and Darwin went beyond basic adaptation to establish the theory of evolution by natural selection, by explaining how species adapt and evolve. Natural selection is intended as a means by which organisms can be better adapted to the environment than other organisms of the same species. In comparison with other species members, it allows better survival and reproduction, leading to evolution.
Many of the characteristics may be larger, tougher, better battle against infections or have smaller ears among individuals of a certain species. Such traits are primarily determined by their genes, which are passed to their own offspring by their ancestors. Any of these features or features offer competing advantages such as size, strength or appeal. If these features are particularly helpful, people with these features produce more offspring than without. The number of people with this beneficial trait or adaptation will grow over time until it becomes a feature of the species.
Types of adaptations
All species are adapted to survive on the Earth. There are three types of adaptations, one is structural adaptations. Structural changes are the physical features of an individual, such as an organ bill or a bear fur. Adaptations are Behavioral. Behavioral ones are the survival functions of humans. Bird calls and migrations, for example, are behavioral adaptations.
Some part of the animal’s body, such as its size or shape, the body covering of the animal or the way the animal is moving, is structural adaptation.
• Teeth: not everyone has the same sort of teeth as different animals eat different things.
• Coverings of the body: The skin grows in fur, scales, spines and eyes. Both of these parts allow animals to survive.
• Movement: animals find their food by moving everywhere
The manner in which some plants adapted to life in hot, warm deserts is an example of structural adaptation. Plants called succulents have adapted their short and thick stems and leaves of water to that climate.
Another good example for structural adaptations is different beaks of Birds. Some have very short beaks for eat grains, some have thin long beak for suck nectar…..
Behavioral adaptations include activities that help an animal survive. Behavior changes may be practiced or instinctive (An animal’s action when it is born).
• Social behavior: some species live in groups by themselves.
• Defensive action: the action of an animal is also beneficial in animal safety. The opossum plays dead, for example. If it believes that it was heard, a rabbit freeze.
Migration-is the behavioral adaptation involving the migration of an animal or group of animals from one location to another and back.
For different reasons, animals migrate. There are the following explanations.
• Better climate
• Enhanced health
• Healthy living area
• Return to their birthplace.
A case in point is how emperor Penguins in Antarctica crowd in the middle of winter to share their food. Grey whales (Eschrichtius robustus), which migrate from the cold Arctic ocean in summer to warm waters off Mexico coast during winter, travel thousands of kilometers per year. Grey whale calves come into being in the dry, southerly waters, and then migrate to nutrient-rich Arctic waters in groups called pods.
There are also adaptations that often support or co-opt for another in response to one task. The first modifications to tactile senses or temperature sensors were possibly feeders. Later, the feathers were longer and stronger, which made it possible to float and fly free. These functions are known as exaptations. On the other hand, some features lose their function while others are more important or changing the climate. Proof of these features remains vestigial, reduced or nonfunctional. Whales and dolphins have the remains of an adaptation (legs) used by their ancestors.
Change in habitat:
In response to a change in the environment of the species, adaptations also evolve. The peppered moth (Biston betularia) of England is a popular example of an animal preparing for a change in his climate. The dominant characteristic of the moth was cream with darker spots before the 19th century. Some of them were black or grey peppered moths. The appearance of the peppered moth changed as the Industrial Revolution changed the climate. In the urban setting, the darker, uncommon moths started to flourish. Their sooty colour mingled with the toxic waste tainted trees. Birds were unable to see the dark moths, so instead, they ate the moths that were creamed.
Often species adapt to other species and to each other named Coadaptation. Some flowers provide nectar for cowbirds. Hummingbirds have adapted their turns to remove nectar from some flowers with long, thin beaks. When a cobblestone is taken to fruit, it unwittingly gathers pollen from the other flowers that are placed on the stigma of the following flowers that it visits. The colibris get food in this relationship while the plant distributes pollen. Coadaptation is essential for all organisms. Another form of coadaptation is imitation. One creature modified to look like another in imitation. A color pattern similar to the lethal coral serpent has been adapted by the harmless King Snake (sometimes known as a milk snake). This imitation holds the king’s snake’s predators away.
Both behavioral and structural adaptations of the mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus). This kind of pulses can mimic other animals’ look and movements, including sea snakes, flatfish, jellyfish and shrimps. Coadaptation can also reduce the capacity of an organism to adapt to new environmental changes. This might co-extinguish. The big blue butterfly adapted to eat red ants in southern England.
Often an alteration or adaptation takes place that separates one species into two. This is called speciation. Marsupials in Oceania are a case in point of adaptive radiation, speciation whereby species evolve of order to fill a number of empty ecological niches. Mammals who are young in pouches, Marsupials, arrived in Oceania before the country separated from Asia. After a short birth. Every other continent, but not Oceania, has come to influence Placental mammals, animals that bear their young to maturity in the womb of a female. For example, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), which are native to Australia, adapted to feed on eucalyptus trees.