During the past few decades, people worldwide have been aggrieved from the climatic changes due to improper human activities. At present, there are so many advanced factories that have constructed in developed countries all over the world. The emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from such factories is the primary cause of Greenhouse effect. It has predicted that there will be so many natural disasters in the future due to climate changes for various reasons.
What are the climatic changes?
Climatic changes mean the deviation of temperature, rainfall, air humidity, air pressure like climatic parameters from their average condition within a particular geographical area and long period. When considering the entire history of this Earth, even the climatic changes have occurred each period of era. However, at present that we are experiencing climatic changes that have occurred due to improper human activities. Those climatic changes could be a significant threat to human beings’ existence and the entire life on Earth.
What are the greenhouse gases ?
Greenhouse gases are naturally existing in the atmosphere and are also artificially generated by human activities. Greenhouse gases can absorb and emit radiation into the environment emitted by the sun or reflected from the Earth’s surface. There are some greenhouse gases which have emitted by human activities in various ways. Those have been caused to rising global warming. Leading green house gases are mentioned as below.
- Carbon dioxide (CO2)
- Methane (CH4)
- Nitrous oxide (N2O)
- Hydrofluoro – Carbon (HFC)
- Chlorofluoro – Carbon (CFC)
- Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
- Nitrogen fluoride (NF3)
Now it has been identified that Carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Chlorofluoro- Carbon (CFC), HydroFluoro Carbon (HFC) are the primary greenhouse gases which must be controlled the emission into the atmosphere.
The radiation with short wavelengths coming from the sun is absorbed by the Earth and emitted remaining radiation with long wavelengths to the higher atmosphere. However, trapping of the reflected radiation with long-wavelength by Earth from the greenhouse gases called the greenhouse effect. Generally, the greenhouse effect is not an adverse effect on the Earth. It can consider as a factor of balance the climate variation of the Earth.
Scientists have calculated that, If the natural greenhouse effect is not happening on the Earth, the global average temperature may reduced up to -18C. That is not a favorable condition for the living beings who lived on the Earth. Therefore the greenhouse effect is an essential thing for the survival of life on the Earth.
In 1895, Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius showed that simply the greenhouse effect is not only a natural process, but it happens due to the emission of CO2 by a human. Therefore humans are directly contributing to the greenhouse effect.
Most of the radiation emitting from the sun reaches the Earth’s surface as light waves. That energy reflected again to the atmosphere as infrared radiation. This phenomenon should happen in a balanced way. At present, the amount of greenhouse gas molecules have risen due to the unfavorable activities of human. Therefore infrared radiation is reflected by Earth’s surface, absorbed by those gases.
Then it tends to reflect the Earth as energy. That will cause to increase in the temperature in lower levels of the atmosphere. The increase in the rate of global warming during recent history due to the addition of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through the human activities.
Addition of green house gases into the atmosphere by the human activities
Nowadays, due to the world’s industrialization, people are constructively doing their work against nature. Therefore many of the greenhouse gases have added to nature in below ways.
- Power generation
Using fossil fuels such as charcoal and petroleum to generate power, electricity, and heat generates a considerable amount of Carbon dioxide.
- Land consumption and deforestation
During the past several periods, we observed deforestation by the people for various development projects. Therefore due to the lack of greenhouse gas absorbers, the level of Carbon dioxide is rising.
Burning of fossil fuels for the power generation of factories and greenhouse gases can be emitted due to the chemical, metallic and mineral reactions that are not generating energy.
- Transportation and locomotion
In the transportation sector, greenhouse gases can be emitted due to the burning of fossil fuels. That is happening through all the transportation sectors such as highways, skylines, and also sea lines. Most of the energy which needs transportation is obtained from petroleum sources.
Nitrogen-containing fertilizers are commonly used in agriculture. Through that, N2O gases can be emitted.
- Wastes and wastewater
Methane (CH4) emitted from wetland and Nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from wastewater are mainly contribute to the greenhouse effect. And also, methane and Carbon dioxide like gases emit due to the addition and burning of fossil fuels.
Adverse effects due to the climatic changes
People who are living all over the world have to face so many adverse effects due to the climatic changes. As a result of the climatic changes, many natural disasters have occurred in the past century. Not only that, the tragedies that could be happened in the future are mentioned below.
- Destroy the organisms which are living in the ocean due to increasing the temperature of seawater.
- Dissolve the glaziers and ice cubes in the polar region due to increasing global warming. As a results of that, small islands will disappear and dormant harmful microorganisms under the glaciers may activate after exposing.
- Rainfall could not expect in the right period due to the changes in monsoonal wind patterns. Therefore drought conditions may happen for an extended period as a result of crops destroying.
- Natural disasters like cyclones, drought, storms, and landslides may increase.
- Due to the climatic changes, temperature and rainfall pattern also changed. Therefore susceptibility to dengue, malaria like diseases can be increased.
- Due to the changes in the rainfall pattern, agricultural practices can not be done correctly. Therefore the food scarcity maybe happened worldwide.
- Extinction of threatened species due to the loss of habitat.
How to minimize the effect of climatic changes and Greenhouse effect
Secretary of the United Nations climate actions has recommended the following methodologies to minimize the effect of climatic changes.
- Efficient use of power and the usage of power-efficient utensils.
- Nonessential bulbs should be off and use less power consumption bulbs.
- Using eco friendly fuels.
- Prevent using AC in a cool environment condition and feel the natural cold.
- Prevent starting motor vehicles in purposelessly.
- Whenever possible, using natural light instead of electricity.
- Growing crops inside the garden using the composite, which reduces the organic wastes from home.
- Using renewable energy.
- Buying environmentally certified green products.
- Reforestation in decertified lands.
- Using and ensuring the water resources carefully.
- While planning the buildings, follow the green building method and using resources effectively and efficiently.